- Vialsova Anna Candidate of Philology
. The norms of using the adverbial participle in speech have been the subject of grammar, rhetoric and speech culture for almost three centuries — a period of a desperate struggle against the violation of the prescribed rules for the use of the adverbial participle. Modern grammar science looks at violations of the norms of the use of the adverbial participle in a different way: an analysis of the abusive uses of the adverbial participle helps both to reveal the grammatical properties of the verb form itself and to trace the modern trends of the language. In connection with the study of the properties of the modern adverbial participle, it becomes necessary to refer to the history of the formation of this verb form from the short form of the Church Slavonic participle. An analysis of the peculiarities of the use of short forms of active participles and definite form of participles in ancient Russian texts allows us to explain the functional mechanisms of participles and adverbial participles in the modern language, to outline the zone of their divergence. The article examined the cases of choosing the short form of the participle, which show that its textual functions in the ancient language were wider than the textual functions of the adverbial participle in the modern language. Based on material from hagiographic texts of the 11th — 17th centuries constructions that are not characteristic of modern adverbial participle were considered. It can be named three conditions for the normative use of the modern adverbial participle, which correspond to the structural components of this article. First, the adverbial participle in the modern language, unlike the Church Slavonic language, cannot be used absolutely as a predicate of a sentence. Secondly, one of the violations of the norms should be recognized as the heterogeneity along the time line of the adverbial participle and the predicate. However, in the Church Slavonic language, such contexts of the use of short participial forms are found. Finally, a comparative analysis of these verb forms with impersonal subject was performed. As a result, it was shown that for the modern adverbial participle, the narrowing of temporal functions is compensated by the expansion of the possibility of use with subjects of different types. It seems that an appeal to historical material can explain not only the grammatical properties of modern verb forms, but also violations of the grammatical norms of speech.