- Grigorev Andrey Doctor of Philology, Associate Professor
- Orlova Antonina
The article describes the loan-words tracing back to the Indo-European root *mag- “to knead, press, spread” in the Russian language with relation to etymology, semantics and derivation. The methodological basis of the research is the studies of Russian etymologists (O. N. Trubachev, Zh. Zh. Varbot, to name just a few) and the conception of diachronic approach to word-formation described in the works of A. M. Kamchatnov. The material for the analysis is based on the contexts of the Russian contemporary and historical dictionaries, as well as the Russian National Corpus.
The study demonstrates that the word магма in the Russian language was fi rst recorded in the Azbukovniks in the 17th century with the meaning “a plaster”. Later it became obsolete. In the second half of the 19th century it was borrowed again from European languages as a medical and chemical, and later as a geological term. In recent years this word has been used in the occasional fi gurative meaning “something very hot, fi ery”. Another derivative – the word масса has also been adopted from the European languages (presumably from New High German or French). It has been recorded in all the meanings represented in the contemporary Russian language since the fi rst third of the 18th century. At the same time, the meaning of the word масса in the expression конкурсная масса (“all available sources which must be used to pay the debts of a bankrupt”) has been lost in the literary language, remaining only in the professional jargon. One more derivative — the word матч — was borrowed from English in the late 19th century. It was originally used in relation to chess, and then to any sports event involving two or more participants.
The paper describes the history of the word парикмахер, also referring to the etymological family of words with the root *mag-. This word in its modern form has been fi xed since 1731. It is a German borrowing noun Perückenmacher (Perücke ‘wig’ + macher ‘a person or thing that makes or produces something’), in which the fi rst part either changed under the infl uence of the word Parik, which came to the Russian language in the fi rst decade of the 18th century from the Old Dutch paruike, or under the infl uence of the variant form of the German word Perücke — Parucke. At the same time in Peter the Great period in 1723 we observe an earlier version of the word парикмахер — парукмакар (парукмакар), apparently borrowed from the Dutch paruikenmaker (рaruike ‘wig’ + mak(er) ‘‘a person or thing that makes or produces something’). The inner form of borrowing парикмахер — ‘the one who makes the wigs’, but by the end of the XVIII century, it is used for referring a master that combs one’s hair (not only hair of wigs) and serves as a synonym for the nouns волосочес and волосочесатель that is associated with the fading of the fashion for wigs.